Tax season might not be most people’s favorite time of year, but it is something we must all go through. We know you might rather be doing a lot of other things right now than talk about tax deductions (yard work or laundry, for example).
You may already be familiar with standard versus itemized deductions, but as we get ready to file tax returns, it’s not a bad idea to review some tax basics.
Remember, tax deductions are claimed with the hope that they could save you money by decreasing your taxable income. Here's a quick refresher on the difference between standard and itemized tax deductions.
Whether you file your taxes yourself every year or have an accountant do it, you’re probably familiar with the idea that your taxable income impacts how much tax you owe (you can learn more about tax brackets here).
Keep in mind that not every dollar and cent you made throughout the year is necessarily taxable income (that is, the income amount you have to pay taxes on). This is where tax deductions come in. Generally speaking, certain expenses you incurred during the year may be “deductible” or subtracted from your taxable income, which could help lower the amount of taxes you pay.
Here’s a basic example. Say your gross income for the year is $80,000 and you receive a tax deduction of $15,000. This could help lower your taxable income to $65,000 ($80,000 - $15,000).
Now let’s jump into it– standard deduction vs. itemized! (And remember – you can only claim one of these, not both).
The standard deduction option is, well...the standard. Almost any individual is eligible for the standard deduction (we’ll get into the exceptions later).
For 2022, the standard deduction is $12,950 for single filers or married filing separately, $19,400 for heads of household and $25,900 for those married filing jointly.
For 2023, the standard deduction is $13,850 for single filers or married filing separately, $20,800 for heads of household and $27,700 for those married filing jointly.
You don’t have to file any extra forms to get the standard deduction or declare any specific expenses. It’s usually an option you can select on your Form 1040.
As we mentioned earlier, not everyone can take the standard deduction. The IRS says the following tax filers may not be able to claim it:
Now that we’ve explained what a standard deduction is, let’s get into the reasons why it might be an option for you.
As we mentioned, using the standard deduction does not require any additional forms, potentially saving you time during tax season. Many tax filers can claim it, regardless of income. Certain taxpayers could also qualify for an even bigger deduction under the standard deduction, based on age and/or disability.
For the 2022 tax year, taxpayers who are 65 years or older, or those who are blind, are eligible for an additional deduction of $1,750 (single filers) or $1,400 (married filing jointly or separately). For more details, see IRS Publication 501 or consult a tax professional.
Overall, using the standard deduction can be convenient and time-saving. You know exactly how much you can expect to deduct and don’t have to sort through and organize various expenses.
After hearing “convenient” and “saves you time” you might be thinking, “So what’s the downside, then?”
The answer is actually quite straightforward (although it does require saying the word “deduction” about a dozen times). The standard deduction might not be your best option if itemizing your deductions would result in a larger deduction.
We’ll get into itemized deductions in the next section, but in terms of deciding which to use, in some cases, it really can be as simple as which deduction provides the greatest subtraction to your taxable income.
While the standard deduction allows taxpayers to subtract a set amount from their taxable income, itemized deductions allow taxpayers to lower their taxable income through a list of qualifying expenses approved by the IRS.
From the sound of that, you might’ve already guessed that itemizing your deductions will likely take more time than simply checking the “standard deduction” box on your tax forms.
To itemize your deductions, you can use Schedule A, Form 1040. Qualifying expenses can include:
Clearly, that can be a lot to keep track of. Sure, you might be able to pull some of that information straight from bank statements. But combing through them and then organizing the expenses can take some time, as you want to be sure all of the amounts are accurate and you’re not forgetting anything.
Yet the work may be worth it if the total of your itemized deductions ends up being more than the standard deduction. (This could help further lower your taxable income.)
If you’re itemizing deductions, the main thing you’re looking for is whether the amount of your itemized deductions is going to be greater than your standard deduction.
You may have figured this out already: If your allowable deductible expenses for the tax year don’t exceed the standard deduction you’re eligible for, itemizing is likely not your best bet.
Because itemizing requires quite a bit of work compared to just taking the standard deduction, you want to have a pretty good idea of how much you stand to save by itemizing over taking the standard deduction.
Trying to decide between the standard deduction or itemizing means having to review your expenses for the year and doing some math to figure out which option could give you the bigger deduction.
Remember, everyone’s tax situation is different, so it’s a good idea to chat with a tax professional who can help you crunch the numbers and decide which deduction works for you.
This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for individualized professional tax advice. Individuals should consult their own tax advisor for matters specific to their own taxes. This article was prepared by and approved by Marcus by Goldman Sachs, but does not reflect the institutional opinions of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., Goldman Sachs Bank USA, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC or any of their affiliates, subsidiaries or divisions. Goldman Sachs Bank USA and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC are not providing any financial, economic, legal, accounting, tax or other recommendations in this article. Information and opinions expressed in this article are as of the date of this material only and subject to change without notice. Information contained in this article does not constitute the provision of investment advice by Goldman Sachs Bank USA, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC or any of their affiliates. Neither Goldman Sachs Bank USA, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC nor any of their affiliates makes any representations or warranties, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the statements of any information contained in this document and any liability therefore is expressly disclaimed.