September 16, 2022
What we’ll cover:
Many of us are probably already familiar with the basics of an emergency fund – the who (everyone), what, why, where and how much (enough to cover at least 3-6 months of expenses).
But what about the question of when?
When would it be appropriate to actually use the money you’ve been putting away in the emergency fund? In other words, what counts as an emergency and what doesn’t?
Some common examples might include a job loss, an urgent medical procedure, a leaky roof or major car repairs.
Here are three key questions that can help you determine whether it might be time to tap your emergency fund:
Everyone’s definition of an emergency can vary, and when you’re in a bind, everything can seem like an emergency.
For example, forgetting to buy a present for a friend’s baby shower you’re headed to might feel like an emergency when it’s simply something you forgot to do ahead of time.
But let’s say you accidentally tore off your car door because you forgot to close it before backing out of your garage. This would qualify as an emergency: It's unexpected and now you have to get the car repaired or else it would be difficult for you to get to work. (This example was inspired by real-life events.)
Other unexpected expenses can include things like: a job loss, urgent medical procedures and major home repairs (e.g., flooding, leaky roof, etc.).
Generally speaking, you should avoid using your emergency fund for predictable or recurring expenses because they should already be a part of your budget. Without some ground rules like this, it might become tempting to raid your cash reserve whenever you need to pay for a last-minute expense.
Again, this question can be tricky. This is where it’s important to understand the distinction between wants and needs.
You may want or feel like you need to upgrade your phone right away after admiring the latest model on display.
Now, we’re not saying you can’t buy a new phone, but you shouldn’t use your emergency fund to come up with the cash. It is not a necessary expense because life can still go as normal whether or not you have the new phone.
Let’s consider an example of a necessary expense.
Remember that car door you accidently took out? Repairing that car door is necessary because otherwise it would impact your ability to get yourself to work.
Sure, if you lived in a big city, you could find alternative transportation. But if you normally need your car to get to work (say, you’re a long-distance commuter), not repairing your car would cause a significant disruption to your work life.
So another way to think about whether an expense is necessary is to ask yourself if this situation needs to be addressed in order for you to carry on with your day-to-day.
If something requieres you to act immediately, then you’re most likely facing an emergency.
Those common examples of an emergency we mentioned earlier – job loss, major car repairs and home repairs – all meet this urgency test.
Certain travel arrangements may also qualify – for instance, if you need to book a last-minute plane ticket to go tend to a sick parent or friend.
While the whole purpose of an emergency fund is to help pay for unexpected expenses, you may not always have to dip into your fund to pay for them. There may be other ways you could cover such expenses.
This might mean looking at your monthly budget to see if you could shift some money around to come up with the necessary funds. You could even take on a side project and earn extra income to help cover the cost.
You might also want to explore if there are other financial resources you could lean on for assistance during an emergency.
For instance, if you lost your job, you might be eligible for unemployment benefits. To be sure, an unemployment check won’t completely make up for your old paycheck, but the funds could help tide you over in the short term.
This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for individualized professional advice. Individuals should consult their own tax advisor for matters specific to their own taxes and nothing communicated to you herein should be considered tax advice. This article was prepared by and approved by Marcus by Goldman Sachs, but does not reflect the institutional opinions of Goldman Sachs Bank USA, Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. or any of their affiliates, subsidiaries or division. Goldman Sachs Bank USA does not provide any financial, economic, legal, accounting, tax or other recommendation in this article. Information and opinions expressed in this article are as of the date of this material only and subject to change without notice. Information contained in this article does not constitute the provision of investment advice by Goldman Sachs Bank USA or any its affiliates. Neither Goldman Sachs Bank USA nor any of its affiliates makes any representations or warranties, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the statements or any information contained in this document and any liability therefore is expressly disclaimed.